Some people alternatively perceive robots as dangerous technological attempts that will one day lead to the death of the human race by overthrowing us or making us stronger and taking over the world or turning us into purely technology-dependent beings that passively sit and program. Robots do all our works. In fact, the first use of the word “robot” occurred in a game about mechanical men who were built to work on factory assembly lines and rebelled against their human masters. These machines are R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), written by Czech playwright Karl Capek in 1921, takes its name from the Czech word for slave. The word “Robotics” was also coined by a writer. Russian-born American science fiction writer Isaac Asimov first used the word in his short story “Runabout” in 1942. Asimov had a much brighter and more optimistic view of the robot’s role in human society than Capek. In his short stories, he often described robots as the auxiliary servants of humans, and regard robots as a ‘better, purer race’.
So, what exactly is the robot? This actually turns out to be a difficult question. Several definitions are available, including:
A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.Robot Institute of America
An automatic device that performs functions normally attributed to humans, or a machine in the form of a human.Webster’s Dictionary
A reprogrammable manipulator device.” British Department of Industry. “Robotics is the field concerned with the intelligent connection of perception to action.Mike Brady
Early Concepts of Robots
One of the first examples of a mechanical device built to regularly perform a specific physical task, occurred around 3000 B.C. Egyptian water clocks used human figurines to ring the clock bells. Archytas of Tarentum, the inventor of the pulley and screw, also invented a wood pigeon that can fly in 400 B.C. Hydro-powered sculptures capable of speaking, moving and prophesying were widely built in Hellenistic Egypt in the 2nd century B.C. In the first century, Petronius Arbiter made a doll that could move like a human. Giovanni Torriani created a wooden robot in 1557 that could bring the emperor’s daily bread from the shop.
Robotic inventions reached a relative peak in the 1700s. During this time countless ingenious, but impractical, automatons (i.e. robots) were created. 19. the century was also filled with new robotic creations, such as Edison’s talking doll and Canadians’ steam-powered robot. Although these inventions have thrown the first seeds of inspiration for the modern robot throughout history, scientific progress in robotics in the 20th century exceeds previous developments by a thousandfold.
First Modern Robots
The earliest modern robots we know were created by George C. Devol, an inventor from Louisville, Kentucky, in the early 1950s. He invented and patented a reprogrammable manipulator called ‘Unimate’ from Universal Automation. For the next decade he tried to sell his product in the industry, but he cannot succeed. In the late 1960s, businessman/engineer Joseph Engleberger patented Devol’s robot and could turn it into an industrial robot and founded a company called Unimation to manufacture and market the robots. Because of his efforts and achievements, Engleberger is known in the industry as the “Father of Robotics”. The Academy has also made great progress in the creation of new robots. In 1958, at the Stanford Research Institute, Charles Rosen led a research team to develop a robot called ‘Shakey’. Shakey, who received this name because of his shaky and rattling movements, was much more advanced than the original Unimate, designed for special, industrial applications. Shakey could turn around the room, observe the scene with his television eyes, move in unfamiliar environments and to some extent react to his surroundings.
Commercial and industrial robots are widely used today and get used to do things more cheaply, more accurately and more reliably than humans. They are also used in some jobs that are too dirty, dangerous or boring to be suitable for people. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packaging, mining, shipping, earth and space exploration, surgery, weapons, laboratory research, security and consumer and mass production of industrial goods.
Robot technologies are developing and growing exponentially every second today.
Current and potential applications include:
Industrial robots. Robots are increasingly used in production (since the 1960s). According to robot Industry data, the automotive industry was the main customer of industrial robots with 52% of total sales in 2016. They can meet more than half of the workforce in the automobile industry.
Cobots (collaborative robots)
Construction robots. Construction robots can be divided into three types: traditional robots, robotic arm, and robotic exoskeleton.
Agricultural robots. The use of robots in agriculture is closely related to the concept of artificial intelligence-powered precision agriculture and the use of drones.
Various types of medical robots.
Robot battle for sport. A hobby or sports event in which two or more robots fight to defeat each other in an arena. This evolved from a hobby in the 1990s to several TV series around the world.
Cleaning contaminated areas such as toxic waste or nuclear facilities.
- Native robots
- Herd robotics
- Autonomous drones
- Sports field line marking
- Robotics Innovations
With relentless robotic Innovations, robots continue to approach human life and engage in all aspects of life and work. Robotic innovations simply mean automation of various tasks previously performed by humans. Robot technology has come a long way from research laboratories to entering new areas. Robots help people with all sorts of works from self-driving vehicles to automating complex tasks and lifting heavy machinery. It is estimated that the global robot market will reach about $ 210 billion by 2025. Some of today’s robotics innovations are:
Piko: An impressive little robot head. The Robot has an impressive face that animates a range of emotions, a color-changing base and a touch-sensitive nose using Pixel IntoFace technology, and makes the bot lively and mobile. Users can send real-time updates to Piko so that the system can be customized as desired with a few code changes.
Saul robot: Saul is a germ-killing robot that uses the power of technology to kill viruses, including the Ebola virus. The Robot was used in destroying the virus in rooms where quarantine procedures were applied on aid workers. It breaks down and weakens the cell walls of the virus.
Deep sense: It significantly improves the environmental sensing capabilities of service robots to improve their performance and reliability, achieve new functionality, and open new applications for robotics.
Inflatable 3D printed robots: These soft robots are made of flexible rubber, partially formed by a 3D printing mold. The soft body allows robots to move and bend without damaging their interior mechanics. The flexible body also makes soft robots better equipped to maneuver in difficult terrain, increase range of motion and reduce their size to match their environments.
Luka robot: Luka is a reading robot companion for children. The robot recognizes and reads over 20,000 English picture books and over 70,000 Chinese titles. Luka enables and supports children to read independently anytime, anywhere.
UBTECH ‘Cruzr’: A humanoid service robot that designs to keep customers and team members connected to the information they need most and expand the capabilities of a business. The Robot has a mobile design that can easily move around an office area and even an airport terminal, and a large screen that will provide visual information to users. It also has an open-source platform that allows businesses to customize the capabilities of the unit to act accordingly in specific environments.